Dominique Chicken: History, Characteristics, Care Tips, & More!

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The Dominique chicken is a breed of domesticated fowl that has a long and storied history. It is believed to be the oldest breed of chicken in the US, with some sources suggesting that it was brought over by the pilgrims. Despite its long history, however, there were only four known breeders of Dominiques in the 1970s, so conservation efforts began at that time.

Despite this decline in popularity, the Dominique remains an important part of American agricultural heritage. The breed is known for its hardiness and adaptability, making it a popular choice for small-scale farmers and backyard chicken keepers.

In addition, Dominiques are known for their docile and friendly personalities, making them a popular choice for families with children. With its distinctive black and white barred plumage and unique characteristics, the Dominique is a fascinating and important breed that deserves to be celebrated and preserved.

History of Dominique Chicken

Dominique chicken is believed to have originated in New England in the early 1800s. It was developed from a variety of chicken breeds, including the Dorking, the Redcap, and the Cochin.

The Dominique chicken quickly became a popular breed among farmers and homesteaders. Its hardiness and adaptability made it well-suited to the harsh climate and rugged terrain of the Northeastern United States. The breed was also prized for its meat and eggs, which were considered to be of high quality.

During the 19th century, Dominique chickens were exported to Europe, where they became popular among poultry enthusiasts. The breed was recognized by the American Poultry Association in 1874 and quickly became one of the most popular breeds in the country.

However, by the early 20th century, the popularity of the Dominique chicken began to wane. The breed was eclipsed by newer, more exotic breeds, and its numbers began to decline. In the 1970s, the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy declared the Dominique chicken to be a threatened breed, and efforts were made to preserve the breed and increase its numbers.

Today, the Dominique chicken is still considered to be a rare breed, but its popularity is once again on the rise. Many homesteaders and small-scale farmers are rediscovering the virtues of this hardy, adaptable breed, and efforts are being made to increase its numbers and preserve its unique genetic heritage.

Characteristics of Dominique Chicken


Dominique chickens are medium-sized birds with distinctive black and white striped plumage. They have a rose comb and bright red wattles and earlobes. Roosters typically weigh between 7-8 pounds, while hens weigh between 5-6 pounds. Dominique chickens have a sturdy and compact build with broad shoulders and a long, full tail.


Dominique chickens are known for their calm and friendly demeanor. They are excellent foragers and do well in free-range environments. They are also good at avoiding predators due to their alertness and agility. Dominique chickens are not aggressive towards humans and make excellent pets. They are also good layers, producing around 230-275 brown eggs per year.

Although some Dominique hens may go broody and want to hatch eggs, there are no guarantees. If they do hatch a clutch of chicks, they tend to be excellent mothers.

Housing and Care for Dominique Chicken

Housing Requirements

Dominique chickens are hardy birds that can tolerate a wide range of temperatures, but they still require proper housing to thrive. A coop with a minimum of 4 square feet per bird is recommended, with a roosting area that is at least 8 inches per bird. The coop should also have good ventilation to prevent moisture buildup, which can lead to respiratory issues and frozen combs. A secure run area with at least 8-10 square feet per bird is also necessary to allow for exercise and fresh air.

Feeding and Watering

Dominique chickens require a balanced diet of protein, carbohydrates, and vitamins to maintain their health. A commercial layer feed will provide the best diet for maximum egg production. Supplementing with fresh fruits and vegetables, such as leafy greens and carrots, can provide additional nutrients. Clean, fresh water should always be available, and waterers should be cleaned regularly to prevent the buildup of bacteria.

Health and Wellness

Dominique chickens are generally healthy birds, but they can still be susceptible to common poultry diseases, such as mites and lice. By providing adequate housing and a balanced diet, most health problems can be prevented.

The rose comb of the Dominique makes them less susceptible to frostbite than breeds with other types of combs, such as a single comb.

Breeding Dominique Chicken

Selecting Breeding Stock

When breeding Dominique chicken, it is essential to select the best breeding stock. The birds should be healthy, active, and free from any disease or deformity, such as extra toes. The ideal breeding stock should have good body conformation, with a broad back, a deep chest, and strong legs. They should have a rose comb, and the female should have good egg-laying ability.

Because the rose comb is one of the defining characteristics of the breed, it’s important to only breed Dominique chickens that have a proper rose comb. If you are serious about conservation breeding, you should purchase your breeding stock from other private breeders, as a lot of Dominiques from hatcheries will have single combs, which are characteristic of other barred breeds, such as a barred Rock.

To learn more about breeding chickens, see these tips and techniques.


The eggs of Dominique chicken can be incubated naturally or artificially. The natural method involves placing the eggs under a broody hen, while the artificial method involves using an incubator. The eggs should be collected daily and stored in a cool, dry place until they are ready for incubation, but no longer than a week or two. The ideal temperature for incubating the eggs is between 99-101 degrees Fahrenheit, and the humidity level should be around 50%.


The incubation period for Dominique chicken eggs is approximately 21 days. During this time, the eggs should be turned regularly to ensure that the embryo develops evenly. Once the chicks hatch, they should be kept in a brooder and provided with a commercial chick starter and water.

Learn more >> Hatching Chicken Eggs: A Step-by-Step Guide

Uses of Dominique Chicken

Egg Production

Dominique chicken is a dual-purpose breed that is raised for both meat and eggs. They are known for their medium-sized brown eggs. Dominique hens are good layers, producing an average of 230-280 eggs per year.

Meat Production

Dominique chickens are also raised for meat. They are a slow-growing breed, which results in more flavorful and tender meat. The meat is also lean and has a good texture. Dominique chickens are often used in traditional dishes such as chicken pot pie, chicken and dumplings, and fried chicken.

Heritage Conservation

Dominique chickens are considered a heritage breed, which means they are a traditional breed that has been raised for centuries. They are an important part of American history, as they were one of the first chicken breeds to be developed in the United States. They were once a very popular breed, but their numbers declined in the 20th century due to the rise of commercial chicken breeds. Today, there are efforts to conserve the breed and promote its use in sustainable agriculture.

Why get Dominique chickens?

One of the most notable features of the Dominique chicken is its striking black and white barred plumage. This unique pattern has made it a popular choice for ornamental purposes, and it is often featured in chicken shows and exhibitions.

Another advantage of the Dominique chicken is its ability to lay a good number of eggs throughout the year. While it may not be the most prolific layer, it still produces a respectable amount of eggs that are of good quality.

Furthermore, the Dominique chicken is a great forager and can thrive in a free-range environment. It is also known to be resistant to many common poultry diseases, which makes it a low-maintenance breed that requires minimal veterinary care.

Overall, the Dominique chicken is a breed that deserves more recognition for its many positive qualities. Whether you are looking for a friendly and easy-to-care-for backyard pet or a productive and hardy chicken, the Dominique is definitely worth considering.

Want to learn more about raising chickens? This Beginner’s Guide to Raising Chickens (+Pro Tips) will help you ask yourself all the right questions, and it will also give you a realistic idea of what to expect as a chicken owner.

Curious about the other chicken breeds? Delve into a wealth of information on various chicken varieties by exploring our comprehensive list on “Encyclopedia of Chicken Breeds”.

Click here to visit our Amazon store, which includes lists of things chickens need, as well as our favorite chicken books!

Dominique Chicken Breed Profile

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